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Name      
Portugal    Alentejo, Escoural EuroPreArt - European Prehistoric Art

Portugal Image map
Keywords: Animals, horses, bulls, horned figures, bucrani, lines, paintings, plough, wagon, engravings, cave, open-air, rock-art.
Institution: IPT Tomar  http://www.ipt.pt/gt/
Record
proposed
by
Instituto Politcnico de Tomar - Portugal
 
Location
Specific feedbackSpecific feedback

Country:

Portugal

Locality:

vora, Montemor-o-Novo, Santiago do Escoural

Region:

Alentejo

Area:

Alentejo

 

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Gruta do Escoural entrada (Silva, A.C.; Arajo, A.C.;1995 )
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Copyright. No commercial use of EuroPreArt content is allowed. Specific © for pictures and drawings is mentioned in the captions or owned by each Author or Institution.
Disclaim. The EuroPreArt project fully endorses the most recent documentation policies. It must be outlined the absolute forbidding of any disruptive method and the necessity of a total respect for archaeological sites. It is also to be noticed that no substances shall be applied to rock art for recording purposes. Some pictures of the EuroPreArt records are related to past recording techniques and may not fully match these policies. They are an historical documentation. Please refer to local archaeological official authorities for any recording purpose. Please take a look also over EuroPreArt guidelines.
 
Environment & Surface

Open-air   Shelter   Cave Portable   Megalithic

Geography:
Localizada entre vora e Montemor-o-Novo, na regio sul do Alentejo.

Proximity:

Localizada prxima da estao arqueolgica do "Monte das Fainha", que se encontra a cerca de 50 km a nordeste.

Geology:

Formao de calcrios cristalinos muito metarmofizados, numa paisagem dominada pelos afloramentos granticos.

Surface:

 

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Art        

Description:

Engravings   Paintings   Painted engravings   High or low-relief   Sculpture
Das numerosas representaes conhecidas nesta gruta, foram identificados mais de uma centena de conjuntos, figurativos ou no, que se repartem entre a Sala junto entrada actual e as galerias a djacentes. Pinturas a vermelho e negro, produzidas com pigmentos naturais dissolvidos em gordura animal. Cabeas de bovdeo, quatro figuras de cavalo pintadas a negro, duas a vermelho e cerca de uma dezena de representaes gravadas), temas no figurativos, constitudos por motivos isolados ou formando pequenos painis, sobretudo gravados (pontos isolados ou agrupados, e traos compondo diferentes figuras de catriz geomtrico de difcil visualizao e caracterizao.

Figures:
total number 400
Figuras zoomrficas (equdeos, bovdeos) possivel figura hibrida e temas no figurativos.

Chronology:

Palaeolithic   Epipalaeolithic - Mesolithic   Neolithic   Copper Age   Bronze Age   Iron Age   Roman   Middle Age   Modern   Unknown
Pelo menos uma parte das pinturas e gravuras pertencero ao Paleoltico Superior (Aurignacense, Solutrense e Magdalenense). No exterior da gruta ("Santurio exterior") existem gravuras que pertencem ao Neoltico Final (cerca de 3000 a.c.)

Notes:

Abstract: Quarry workers discovered the Cave of Escoural in 1963, near Montemor-o-Novo in the southern region of Alentejo, has over 400 images attributable to the Ice Age. In the late seventies, Manuel Farinha dos Santos and his colleagues noticed a series engraved panels on the rock slop above the cave. They called the hill site the open-air rock-art sanctuary of Escoural. Besides cup-marks, the scholars saw horned figures (bucrani), a bull yoked to a plough, and a wagon. It was classified as a national monument, in October 1963. A descoberta da Gruta do Escoural ficou a dever-se a circunstncias ocasionais relacionadas com uma antiga explorao de mrmore da Herdade da Sala, situada em Santiago do Escoural. Fechada naturalmenbte desde tempos pr-histricos, a cavidade viria a ser redescoberta em Abril de 1963 na sequncia de um tiro de pedreira. O arquelogo Farinha dos Santos tomou as primeiras precaues, e foi graas a ele que no s se confirmou o interesse cientfico da descoberta, mas tambm as medidas de salvaguarda que implicaram a suspenso da explorao de mrmore e culminaram com a classificao da gruta como Monumento Nacional em Outubro de 1963.
 
Bibliography        





European total bibliography, by EuroPreArt partnersTotal (Europe)
Portugal EuroPreArt general bibliography, by IPT TomarGeneral (country)
Specific Alentejo,  Escoural bibliography, by IPT TomarSpecific (site)
Rock Art Studies: A Bibliographic worldwide Database (external link). Compiled by Leigh Marymor. Copyright (C) 2001-2002 by the Library, University of California, Berkeley Bibliographic
Rock Art
Database

 

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Conservation        

Status:

Public   Private   Park   Classified site

Risk:

A Gruta doEscoural necessita de condies de conservao e de valorizao que garantam a sua salvaguarda futura. O santuario exterior encontra-se em perigo algumas das gravuras parecem ter desaparecido depois de terem sido escavadas.

Conservation:

Good   Quite good   Mediocre   Bad

Intervention:

 

By          

Compiler:

Ana Catarina Freire

Institution:

IPT Tomar  http://www.ipt.pt/gt/
 
         Record n. 533 / 807
No commercial use is allowed. Specific is mentioned in the captions or owned by each Author or Institution  
 
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NEW: Alpine rock paintings
enter the Balma dei Cervi Virtual Museum and surf the Virtual Tour: spherical pano-views,
hi-def flat photos and tracings


EuroPreArt, European Prehistoric Art, is a web-based archaeological project funded by the European Union which aims to establish a lasting data-base of European prehistoric art documentation, to launch the base of an European institutional network and to contribute to the awareness of the diversity and richness of European Prehistoric Art.
It is proposed by: Instituto Politcnico de Tomar (IPT, Portugal), CUEBC - European University Centre for Cultural Heritage (Italy - Europe), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (España), Asociacin Cultural Colectivo Barban (España), Université de Liège (Belgique), Gotland University College (Sverige), University College Dublin (Eire), Cooperativa Archeologica Le Orme dell'Uomo (Italia), Study Centre and Museum of Prehistoric Art of Pinerolo (Italia), The European Centre for Prehistoric Research in the Alto Ribatejo (Portugal), ArqueoJovem - a youth NGO (Portugal).
Instituto Politcnico de Tomar - Portugal CUEBC - European University Centre for Cultural Heritage, Ravello - Italy CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas, Madrid - Spain Orme dell'Uomo - Footsteps of Man, Valcamonica - Italy Asociacin Cultural Colectivo Barban, Extremadura -Spain Liège University - Belgium Gotland University - Sweden University College Dublin - Ireland CeSMAP - Centro Studi e Museo d'Arte Preistorica. Pinerolo, Italy Arqueo Jovem

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